This post is an abbreviated version of a post on my own blog. The fuller version can be found here: http://mattfrizzell.com/2013/11/10/the-authority-of-scripture-or-how-not-to-read-it/
I’m teaching Restoration Scripture this semester at Graceland University. When I teach this upper division undergraduate course, I spend more time thinking about the role of scripture in normal life more than I usually do .
I teach Restoration Scripture in a way that brings knowledge about scripture together with critical thinking about truth and authority. I attempt to help students think critically about scripture, yet have respect for its tradition. The point is to develop a creative openness to scripture. I believe my approach fits well with Community of Christ’s Statement on Scripture. It’s a relational approach in which students combine critical thinking and respect for its purpose as a communal authority. This allows scripture to become a tool with which to think, imagine, feel, and learn the Spirit at work in the church and its sacred writings, present day and in the past. It takes more time, effort, and discipline to think about scripture this way. But, it is also what connects scripture with lived-life in community with others in an intellectually honest and life-giving way.
Putting practical questions first, we start by asking the implicit question, “What is scripture good for?” This question is important because many young adults simply haven’t developed an understanding of scripture outside their personal exposure (or lack of exposure) to it. Like us, they see how too many Christians obsess over religion and scriptural authority in a way that alienates others. Christianity that worships the authority of scripture has alienated many of us from what it means to be Christian. The humble call to walk and learn from the person and work of Jesus is quickly lost. This is even truer with young adults in my experience.
The problem is that most Christians get way too caught up in the “what” of scripture. More fundamentalist and conservative Christians do it by overemphasizing the literal word and authority of the Bible. Liberal Christians and pan-religious folk do it when they dispense with scripture by labeling it as personal devotional material, simply stories and moral teaching, or irrelevant historical documents. When “what scripture is” becomes more important than what scripture points to, the “who” of scripture is eclipsed. The message and purpose of scripture are lost.
The future of scripture will grow out of a fuller understanding of its past. Interestingly, Restoration Scripture lends itself well to this approach. Community of Christ has an open canon of scripture that evolves. (Other traditions also have an evolving understanding of scripture and its interpretation; its the canonization of new scriptural material that makes the Community of Christ unique.) With all the traps and dangers of having an open canon of scripture, it also has its advantages. The same traps and dangers that come with an open canon also illuminate the all-to-human processes from which the scriptures come. Because of historical proximity, the emergence of Restoration scripture helps us appreciate how scripture emerges as crystalizations of collective (and collected) human experience. They do not drop out of the sky or emerge pristine out of an arc or from the ground. Scriptures are products of divine-human encounter. They are a human endeavor. They come out of the circumstances that created them and carried them to us. And, they testify of God’s activity midst human experience in ultimate proportions. “God,” in scripture, is a sign and object of ultimate meaning.
When we read scripture, we commune with the dead. We glean their wisdom and read their witness of ultimate concern in their lives. In scripture, diverse voices and circumstances come together to convey a semblance of God’s active presence in the mess and mystery of life. They are stories and life-lessons of survival, life’s search for meaning, the waxing and waning of civilizations, war and peace, and life and death. All come to us through scripture.
Scripture is also a particular kind of literature. It is literature that personifies God. In scripture, God is personified because God and human beings constantly interact. They fight, deny, adore, return, struggle with and depend deeply on God. God is strangely present and beyond these entanglements. God is wily and faithful, powerful and vulnerable. God is vengeful and gracious. God is the beginning and the end, whose name is simply “I am.” (Exodus 3:14) This God communes with human beings and is terribly interested in our lives and welfare. God persistently reaches out to us at great personal expense.
When we approach scripture with narrow personal interests or uncritical assumptions about its authority and content, so much gets lost. Any reader can slip right past the message within scripture, finding only what they set out to find. This is how we approach restaurants and government – expecting to get what we’re promised and what we want. But approaching scripture this way avoids a deeper relationship. I avoids questions about who it comes from, to whom it testifies, and who it’s for. So much of what scripture is comes from our relationship with it.
Practically, scripture contains wisdom of the ancients and a living message for today. The ancient church is always also us and not us. The faith community that practices reading and discerning scripture together will be shaped by its message. Reading scripture together is a particular experience that shapes a common memory and a community. This living memory is lived and repeated in the sacraments and rituals that shape the community. This approach to scripture gets much closer to its purpose and message. Jacob wrestled with God; I wrestle with God. Jesus was baptized; I was baptized. The disciples broke bread and drank in Jesus; we break bread and drink in Jesus. Job suffered and searched for meaning; we suffer and search for meaning. Israel longed for a messiah; we do, too.
Consumer culture tends to make us think that religious resources are actually spiritual consumer goods. This, too, influences how we see scripture. Consuming scripture goes beyond using scripture as personal devotional material. Scripture becomes only good for “what I get out of it” and “what it means to me.” This diminishes the community-shaping power of scripture. But, it can also lead to abusing it. When scripture is a consumer good, it’s authority is in what I can get out of it. In an anxious world, we have all seen alarmists and charlatans use scripture to propagate fear, manipulate persons, and create false security. Used as a consumer good, the ultimate nature of the human problems and difficulties addressed in scripture can become a weapon. Consumer culture does not cultivate a relationship with scripture or shape the kind of community its message conveys.
Practical wisdom leads to an understanding of scripture that liberates us from extreme and uninformed approaches. What is scripture good for? It’s good for reading. It’s good for reading in community with others. The authority of scripture is not in literal truth or infallibility. Nor is the authority of scripture limited to what you or I can get out of it for our own benefit. The authority of scripture lies in our ability to encounter, grasp, and be changed by its message. In scripture, diverse voices and circumstances come together to convey God’s active presence in the mess and mystery of life. The stories, testimonies, and life-lessons of survival, our search for meaning, the waxing and waning of civilizations, war and peace, and life and death all come to us through scripture. Reading it together forms relationships and a common memory of stories, life-lessons, and language to express the meaning and mystery of life – which otherwise is nearly impossible for us to express. Read this way, scriptures do not exert authority. Their authority is evident.
I’ve read where Joseph Smith said something like, “Our journals will (or ‘may’) be scripture to future generations.” I’ve written journal entries that were very scripture-like (i.e., inspirational, etc.), so I think ‘scripture’ is any script written by anyone influenced by the Holy Ghost, or something or someone else transcendently and mystically divine. And this has nothing whatsoever to do with any sort of official sanctioning authority, or institutional canonization process.
Just like sometimes I think, “I am my own best friend,” I can also say, “My own scripture (what I wrote) is sometimes the best scripture for me.” Is this an arrogant or heretical stance? I don’t think so because Moses himself said in Numbers 11:29, “…. Enviest thou for my sake? would God that all the LORD’S people were prophets, and that the LORD would put his spirit upon them!”
I don’t know if these would be considered as some sort of ‘restoration scriptures,’ but they often do restore my thoughts, words and deeds to being more Christ-like during times of waywardness. And not just the written down on paper (or word processor) scriptures, but also the ones that I write in ad hoc fashion upon the surfaces of my mind and heart–the ‘pages’ of my soul.
It reflects what I have come to understand about scripture. For a while, I relegated scripture to the if it isn’t true, it isn’t useful category and, as you stated, viewed it as “simply stories” and “moral teaching.” Yet I think as human writings discussing perspectives on God and the perception of a divine reality in our midst, scripture in all traditions has value. Once I shed my intensely modernist perspective, I was able to see the value of both an historical-critical and metaphorical-interpretive approach to sacred scriptures.